1940-1970 : the discoverers
|What to do|
S. BUNNELL (1948)
"when you have nothing, something is a lot"
J Bone Joint Surg, 1956, 38A : 1019-1024.
Fifty years ago, he stated :
J Bone Joint Surg, 1958, 40A : 1071-1080.
In what is now called "group 5", they proposed a two-stage operation :
|What to do not|
Clin Orthop, 1959, 13 : 155-163.
They described 6 techniques of finger flexor tenodesis into the radius. Today this procedure is exceptional.
J Bone Joint Surg, 1963, 45A : 933-951.
They described a "flexor-hinge" hand, with multiple fingers arthrodesis. This irrealistic idea was never popular and is completely abandoned today.
1970-1998 : the pionneers
A. FREEHAFER (1967)
D.W. LAMB (1971)
E. MOBERG (1975)
E.A. ZANCOLLI (1975)
1998-2002 : FES (functional electrical stimulation)
In 1995, the Cleveland FES Center (directed by Prof Hunter Peckham) licensed the Freehand® System to NeuroControl® Corporation. Two years later, the system received approval from Federal Food and Drug Administration.
2002-today : return to the sources
In 2002, NeuroControl® Corporation (Cleveland, Ohio) stopped the sales of Freehand System for commercial reasons.
1978 : Edimburg
1984 : Giens
1989 : Göteborg
1991 : Palo-Alto
1995 : Melbourne
1998 : Cleveland
2001 : Bologna
2003 : Christchurch
2007 : Philadelphia
2010 : Paris
2013 : Hong-Kong
2016 : Recife